A) Pre – Production
Scene: A scene or script is a numbered part of a film script, which may be broken down into parts in longshot, medium-shot, close-up, etc by the director when shooting. A master scene is a fairly long length of the script, all under one number, which the director will certainly break down later. He or she may, however, take the whole of a master scene first, then shoot closeups of the various characters to cut in with this later. In animation the basic unit of continuous action, usually shot on one background, from which a film is built up.
Script: The detailed scene-by-scene instructions for a film or television production, including description of setting and action with dialogue and camera directions. When the script also has full details of visuals it is termed a ‘storyboard’.
Storyboard: A form of shooting script common for animated films for many years and now usually used for commercials, even live-action ones. It consists of a series of sketches showing key positions for every scene, with dialogue and descriptive notes below. Still used in animation.
2D Animation: The creation of moving pictures in a two-dimensional environment, such as through “traditional” cel animation or in computerized animation software. This is done by sequencing consecutive images, or “frames”, that simulate motion by each image showing the next in a gradual progression of steps. The eye can be “fooled” into perceiving motion when these consecutive images are shown at a rate of 24 frames per second or faster. 3D
The creation of moving pictures in a three-dimensional digital environment. This is done by sequencing consecutive images, or “frames”, that simulate motion by each image showing the next in a gradual progression of steps, filmed by a virtual “camera” and then output to video by a rendering engine. The eye can be “fooled” into perceiving motion when these consecutive images are shown at a rate of 24 frames per second or faster.
Character animation: The art of making an animated figure move like a unique individual; sometimes described as acting through drawings. The animator must “understand how the character’s personality and body structure will be reflected in its movements.
Character model: A sheet of drawings defining the proportions, shape, clothing etc. of a character for the guidance of animators.
Computer animation: The technique of using computers to generate moving pictures. Some systems can achieve this in real-time (25 frames per second-or in the USA 30fps), but the majority of animation is created one frame at a time and then edited into a continuous sequence. Very sophisticated programs are required to perform the tasks of movement, fairing, perspective, hidden-surface removal, colouring, shading and illumination, and as the trend increases towards more realistic images, faster computers are needed to process the millions of computations required for each frame. The term “computer animation” covers a broad range of subjects, but overall can be defined as the creation of moving images through the use of computers. These images can be created in either a two-dimensional or three-dimensional space, and can be applied to web design, user interface design, application development, video games, movies, special effects, cartooning, and many others.
Computer graphics: Charts, diagrams, drawings and other pictorial representations that are computer generated.
Effects animation: The animation of non-character movements such as rain, smoke, lightning, water, etc.
Go-Motion: Similar to ‘Stop-Motion’, but the animation is produced by rods attached to the pupet/creature, which can be programmed by a computer to perform the required movement. The advantage over stop-motion is that a lot more realistic movement can be created, because the puppet/creature blurs slightly between each frame. The disadvantage is that the rods attached to the creature need to be hidden from view (e.g. using the blue-screen process)
In Between: The paper drawing of a figure that lies in sequence between two key positions drawn by an animator.
Key frame animation: The animator ‘draws’ directly onto the CRT display and produces a basic picture or cell. A number of these drawings can then be superimposed on one another to form a composite cell or key frame. Many of these key frames can be made up and stored in the computer to be called up and used as required. The action of the film can be created by stringing together the series of key frames, and introducing the desired movements between one frame and the next. Each key frame can be used over and over again by simply calling it repeatedly from the computer score.
Stop-Motion Animation: Moving a special effects puppet or model/creature a small amount and recording a single frame (or small number of frames) so that when the film is played back at a normal speed it appears to move. The disadvantage with this form of animation is that it can sometimes appear to ‘strobe’, partly due to the lack of blur between the frames.
20 unit: domino qq modeling: Geometrical descriptions of an object using polygons or solids in three dimensions (x,y,z coordinates) for the purpose of creating the illusion of height, width and depth.
C) Post Production
Edit : The process of assembling video clips, audio tracks, graphics and other source marerial into a presentable package.
Off-Line Edit : A “draft” edit, usually prepared in an off-line edit suite (at a lower cost), then taken to an on-line facility to make the final cut.
On-Line Edit : The final version of an edit, prepared in a professional edit facility.
Non-linear editing : An approach to video editing made possible by digital video recordings. As in word processing, video segments can be inserted between two existing segments without erasing either. Unlike the approach required when editing analog video , segments do not need to “laid down” in the sequence in which they will later be shown.
Off-line editing : The steps during the edit process when a preliminary selection of usable shots and scenes is made, and the tentative sequence of these elements is decided. This process is typically done with lower cost, simpler editing equipment than is found in a professional edit suite (where on-line editing is done). Using off-line editing can significantly reduce the total cost of a producation.
On-line editing : The steps during the edit process when the compilation of final program is done. When affordable, this is done in a professional edit suite with high quality equipment. If off-line editing had been done, the edit decision list from that phase guides the on-line edit process, typically minimizing the time and cost in the professional edit suite.
Post Production : The phases of production that occur after the recording, filming, or taping. This includes editing, mixing, effects, dubbing, compression, mastering, etc.
Render Farm : A group of computers which work together to perform the computation-intensive tasks of 3-D rendering.
D) Motion Capture
Mocap : The process of recording the data from human movement so that it can be used for 3D characters created on a computer. Mocap can be used for 3D animations for film, TV and games, and for special effects work. There are wireless, magnetic motion capture systems, and optical systems, which track markers attached to the animator.
Performance Capture : The recording of a performance, either human or animal, using a Motion Capture system (or similar technology) – difference being that you can motion capture a table, but it is cannot give a performance. Special Effects Blue (or Green)
Screen : A system that replaces a specified colour (blue in this case) with images from another source. This can either be done optically (eg. using film) or electronically (eg. in video, also known as Chroma-Key in video). Some computer systems look at pixel in the scene and determine whether to replace that pixel with the other video source. Better computer systems allow ‘some’ of the colour of the pixel from 1 image and ‘some’ from another image. The better systems could be take transparent objects (eg. bottles) or smoke and combine these with the images from another source.
Chroma-Key : Keying out parts of an image which contain a particular colour (or colours). Eg. replacing a blue or green background with images from another source.